The Scottish Child Payment will be increased to £25 per week and extended to those under the age of 16 from November 14.
It comes after the payment was doubled from £10 per week to £20 in April this year.
Around 400,000 children in Scotland will be eligible for the payment.
The confirmation of the increase from November 14 will be announced at the Scottish Parliament by First Minister Nicola Sturgeon on Tuesday.
It will form one of the measures aimed at tackling the cost of living crisis, with Sturgeon setting out her Government’s plans for the year ahead.
Speaking ahead of making her Programme for Government statement at Holyrood, Sturgeon described the payment as the “most ambitious” measures in reducing child poverty in the UK.
“The Scottish Child Payment is unique to Scotland, the most ambitious child poverty reduction measure in the UK and an important action to mitigate the growing cost emergency,” she said.
“We doubled the payment to £20 per week per child in April and the further increase to £25 from November means a rise of 150% in less than eight months.
“Around 104,000 children currently in receipt of Scottish Child Payment will have it automatically increased to £25 per week.
“All new eligible under 16s will also benefit from the £25 rate, with all payments backdated to the date their application is received.”
Sturgeon insisted that the most significant powers in tackling the cost of living crisis rest with the UK Government.
The SNP leader reiterated her call for the energy price cap increase to be cancelled.
“Through this year’s Programme for Government we will take every action, within the financial means and legislative powers at our disposal, to help people through this humanitarian crisis that will cost lives,” she said.
“The most significant powers to tackle this crisis rest squarely with the UK Government and their inaction has compounded the difficulties everyone is facing.
“In the absence of a plan from the incoming Prime Minister we have a clear set of actions which the UK Government could take now, and should have taken already, to begin to address the crisis.
“These include an immediate cancellation of the October price cap rise and an uprating of benefits.”
The First Minister argued it is “vital” that people in Scotland have a choice over their future.
She added: “The last few months have made it abundantly clear Scotland cannot rely on the UK Government to support people in Scotland through this crisis. It is vital they have a choice over their future.
“Make no mistake, we will continue to act where others have not to help people and businesses – and the UK Government needs to follow our example.”