The £20 uplift in Universal Credit payments should be made permanent, a committee of MSPs has recommended.
The weekly increase is due to end in October after it was extended in the latest budget.
Holyrood’s Social Security Committee has published a report saying the pandemic has exposed the shortcomings of the current welfare system.
Newly self-employed workers and people with savings are two groups who have not been given enough support, the committee says.
The MSPs are also asking the Scottish and UK governments to work together to explore the feasibility of a Citizens Basic Income in response to any future crises.
Committee convener Bob Doris said: “This pandemic continues to have a devastating impact on people’s lives, particularly our most vulnerable in society.
“Social security has a critical role to play in supporting people at times of crisis and, while we recognise the unprecedented support both the Scottish and UK Governments have provided, it is clear that too many people have fallen through the cracks.
“In order to protect the most vulnerable, the temporary uplift in Universal Credit must be made permanent, and more must be done to help those not currently eligible for support, particularly the newly self-employed and those with savings.
“A Citizens Basic Income for the duration of any future crisis may be one way to protect those who have missed out on support.”
A UK Government spokesman said: “With the extension of the temporary £20 Universal Credit uplift, and the equivalent amount for those on Working Tax Credits, we are helping millions of families whose income has been affected by the pandemic.
“As the economy reopens, we will focus on supporting people back into work through our comprehensive plan for jobs.
“Scotland has significant welfare powers and can top up existing benefits, pay discretionary payments and create entirely new benefits in areas of devolved responsibility.”