Sturgeon: Covid-19 the biggest challenge of our lifetime

The First Minister called for the public's help to tackle the coronavirus pandemic in a national address.

The First Minister has called for the public’s help to tackle the coronavirus pandemic in a national address, branding it “the biggest challenge of our lifetime”.

Nicola Sturgeon told Scots, live on STV News: “I will do my utmost to lead us safely through – but I need your help.”

She said it was “vital” people in Scotland followed the government’s social distancing advice to slow down the spread of the Covid-19 outbreak.

It follows Boris Johnson’s announcement less than an hour earlier telling all pubs, bars, restaurants, cafes, clubs, gyms and leisure centres to close tonight “as soon as they possibly can” and not open tomorrow.


Sturgeon reiterated that demand, speaking from the First Minister’s official residence of Bute House in Edinburgh.

She said everyone must act now to slow the spread of the virus, adding that we must also reduce the number of people we meet and come into contact with.

But the FM also warned the number of cases of Covid-19 are set to rise sharply.

Earlier, Chancellor Rishi Sunak also announced sweeping state interventions in the economy, guaranteeing 80% of all companies’ wage bills to prevent workers from being laid off.


Addressing older people and children, the First Minister said: “A crisis like this will have an impact on wellbeing and mental health.

“To older people, we’re asking you to stay away from your grandkids, from the people you love.

“That’s hard, but it is for your protection, so you can stay around to see them grow up.

“To children, I know this is a strange time. You’re away from school and won’t be able to spend as much time with friends.

“The adults around you are probably feeling a bit anxious too. So help them. Follow their advice. Study and do your homework.

“Don’t forget to have fun – and wash your hands.”

She added: “Let’s all look out for each other. At times of crisis we need each other more, yet we’re being told to stay apart.


“But we can still communicate and offer comfort. Modern technology is sometimes a curse. It can now be a lifeline.

“Phone or Skype loved ones. Text neighbours or drop a note through their door to see if they need help. Maybe even write a letter to your grandparents.”

Sturgeon said the country is “entering stormy waters” but added that “with compassion and kindness and dedication and expertise of our NHS we can and will get through this”.

She said her own sister and sister-in-law work for the NHS, and the debt of gratitude owed to NHS workers is “enormous”.

The First Minister also urged people to support local businesses but not to panic buy.

“There is plenty to go around if we all act responsibly,”. she said.

‘Complex’ investigation continues into cause of house explosion

A family of four were taken to hospital following the blast in Ayr's Gorse Park on Monday night.

Katielee Arrowsmith via SWNS
Explosion: The blast razed one home and caused severe damage to several others.

A “complex” investigation into the cause of an explosion that completely destroyed a house and seriously injured a family of four continues.

The blast, which happened in Ayr’s Gorse Park on Monday night, razed one home and caused severe damage to several others.

A 43-year-old woman and a 16-year-old boy are currently being treated at Glasgow Royal Infirmary.

A 47-year-old man is receiving treatment at the city’s Queen Elizabeth University Hospital, while an 11-year-old boy is being cared for at the Royal Hospital for Children.


Dozens of residents from the Kincaidston housing estate were evacuated and have now spent two nights away from their homes.

Police Scotland said the cause of the explosion is still being investigated, with gas being “one potential being looked at”.

Engineers from gas distribution company SGN remain at the scene as they work with the Scottish Fire and Rescue Service to establish the cause of the blast.

Bradley Barlow, spokesperson for SGN, said: “We’re continuing to assist the emergency services in Gorse Park following an explosion on Monday evening.


“This is a complex incident and we’re supporting several organisations to establish the cause of the explosion.

“We’ll have an ongoing presence on site at this time, with our engineers continuing to monitor our gas network and the surrounding area.

“We’d like to reassure the Ayr community that the gas network remains safe and secure.

“Our thoughts remain with those injured and everyone in the community impacted by this incident.”

STV News
Emergency: The investigation into the cause of the blast continues.

South Ayrshire Council said it had been overwhelmed by donations from the public and offers of help from local businesses.

A hub for residents affected by the incident has been set up at Kincaidston Community Pavilion.

Council staff are at Mercure Hotel working with those accommodated there. Anyone else who requires support is being urged to call 0300 123 0900.


On Tuesday, a council spokesperson said: “Our aim is to get people back home as soon as possible but we can only do this once we are confident properties are safe.”

They added: “As soon as we are clear where the inner cordon lies we will start the clear-up operation which requires to be done with sensitivity due to personal effects being included among general debris.”

Police will ‘step in’ when COP26 protests disrupt city life

Around 10,000 officers will be deployed across Scotland during the crunch climate summit.

STV News

Police are prepared to “step in” if COP26 protests “majorly disrupt” life in Glasgow, a senior officer has said.

A massive security operation has been drawn up for the crunch climate summit, which will be attended by the likes of US President Joe Biden and the Queen.

Large protests are expected in Glasgow and other parts of Scotland during the conference, which has been billed by many as our “last best chance” to avoid climate catastrophe.

In recent weeks, campaigners have brought some major UK motorways to a standstill during rush hour, but Police Scotland deputy chief constable Will Kerr told STV current affairs show Scotland Tonight that officers were ready to deal with any problems.


He said: “Glasgow is a city that’s got a proud tradition of protest and welcoming protest, but there has to be a balance, and there has to be a bit of common sense applied to this.

“If the protest is non-disruptive and doesn’t largely affect the working life of the city, that’s fine, I think people will be largely happy with that. The minute it starts to majorly impact or disrupt the life of the city, we’ll step in.

STV News
Police Scotland deputy chief constable Will Kerr.

“We can give an assurance that if the crowd starts to cause damage to commercial or other premises, we have a significant amount of public order resource available to us and if we need to use it, we’ll use it.

“Our plea to everyone who is going to come to protest at this critically important event in Glasgow is ‘exercise your lawful rights, respectfully and peacefully’. If you do, there won’t be any issues with policing, but if you don’t, we’ll step in very quickly.”


Around 10,000 police officers will be deployed across Scotland during the two-week summit, which begins on November 1, and the public should expect to see more armed police than usual.

“We’re going to see a number of significant events happening within the city at one particular time,” said DCC Kerr. “There’s the conference itself, of course, there’s a number of ancillary events that are happening in the environs of the Scottish Events Campus, and there’s also a number of movements that people will see from the word leaders.

“There’s a state dinner on November 1 and 120-plus world leaders who are going to have to be moved about the country and be moved about that busy urban environment that is Glasgow.

“Some of the officers will be armed, not them all, certainly not the majority, but there will be some armed officers as you would expect. We want to make sure that it can take place safely and that politicians can hopefully deliver their job and actually create a safe and successful event.”

Campaigners call for Scottish Government to criminalise paying for sex

Ministers are being urged to introduce legislation which makes paying for sex a criminal offence.

Motortion via IStock
Charities representing sex workers say they would oppose any move to criminalise the buying of sex.

A group of campaigners are calling on the Scottish Government to criminalise those who pay for sex in order to reduce demand for prostitution.

A group called A Model for Scotland is holding an online event on Wednesday to encourage ministers to introduce legislation which makes paying for sex a criminal offence.

Speaking at the event will be former detective superintendent of Suffolk Constabulary Alan Caton, who led the force’s response to the murders of five women in Ipswich in 2006.

He says outlawing the purchase of sex would help protect women from violence and exploitation.


In this year’s Programme for Government, ministers committed to “develop a model for Scotland which effectively tackles and challenges men’s demand for prostitution”.

However charities which represent sex workers have said they would oppose any move to criminalise the buying of sex.

Umbrella Lane, which represents sex workers across Scotland, says these laws would hurt consensual sex workers and do nothing for those being exploited.

Ahead of the meeting on Wednesday, Caton said: “There is currently a minority of men in Scotland who feel entitled to sexually exploit vulnerable women by paying them for sex.


“My experiences in Ipswich taught me that society must never turn a blind eye to the abuses these men are committing.

“Men who pay for sex cause immense harms to the women they exploit, while their demand also drives a brutal sex trafficking trade.”

He continued: “Prostitution is violence against women. Yet the law in Scotland currently gives men license to pay for sex.

“That cannot be right. It is crucial that the law sends out the unequivocal message that paying for sex is never acceptable, and that law enforcement agencies have the powers to hold perpetrators to account.

“At the same time, women exploited through prostitution must be decriminalised and given the support they need to leave sexual exploitation.”

A Scottish Government spokesman said: “The Scottish Government’s definition of violence against women includes prostitution and this is set out in our Equally Safe strategy.

“This year’s Programme for Government commits the Scottish Government to developing a model for Scotland which effectively tackles this behaviour and we are now taking this work forward.


“We will base our model on fundamental principles which embed equality, human rights and women’s safety at its centre.

“As part of that work, we will learn from other jurisdictions and international approaches and engage with those with lived experience to help shape and strengthen services.”

Dr Anastacia Ryan, founding director of Umbrella Lane, said her organisation and others which represent sex workers oppose the criminalisation approach.

She said: “It is unfathomable that a group of men are calling for laws that have been shown to increase violence against women who engage in sex work.

“Particularly shocking is the weighing in of a male former detective superintendent amidst growing awareness and outrage at the levels of institutional misogyny in police forces.

“Police and former police officers should be there to carry out the law, not campaign for increased criminalisation of an industry steeped in outdated, harmful laws.

“These laws already put women at risk forcing sex workers to work alone indoors or risking arrest through working alone, in hidden and isolated areas on the street to avoid police repression and possible prosecution.”

New teachers ‘more likely to get temporary job than permanent one’

The Scottish Government has been urged to find employment for thousands of teachers facing an uncertain future.

monkeybusinessimages via IStock
Willie Rennie has called for the Scottish Government to 'stop the temporary funding that leads to temporary jobs'.

The number of new teachers getting permanent jobs after their probation year is “plummeting”, Scottish Liberal Democrat MSP Willie Rennie has warned.

Scottish Government figures show that 1169 of the 3076 post-probation teachers (38%) went into permanent, full-time positions in state schools last year.

It is a drop of 10 percentage points from 2018-19 and the lowest proportion for at least seven years, according to official figures.

With 42% of teachers going into temporary, full-time posts after their probation year, it is the first time on record that more people have taken temporary jobs rather than permanent ones.


School statistics show that the overall number of teachers rose by 1153 from 2019, with increases of those teaching in primary, secondary and special needs schools.

But, Rennie called for the Government to “stop the temporary funding that leads to temporary jobs”.

STV News
Willie Rennie is the former leader of the Scottish Liberal Democrats. (STV News)

The former Scottish Lib Dem leader previously set up a petition that attracted more than 1400 signatures calling for the Scottish Government to find employment for thousands of teachers facing an uncertain future.

Rennie said: “These figures show that the plummeting number of full-time jobs available for new teachers is part of a far deeper problem with Scottish Government policy, rather than short-term issues created by Covid.


“This casualisation of the teaching workforce must end. We need to stop the temporary funding that leads to temporary jobs.

“The way the Scottish Government has treated thousands of newly qualified teachers has been disgraceful.

“Despite endless election promises, many teachers and their families have been left in a dire position because of incompetent planning by ministers.

“The Scottish Government has finally listened to our pleas with a decision to baseline some funding for future years which will make the funding permanent.

“This teachers’ victory should not have taken weeks of bad press for ministers to recognise the problems facing our education system.

“But the SNP Government must go further by making more of the funding permanent so that it can be used to issue more permanent contracts.”

A Scottish Government spokeswoman said: “While local authorities are responsible for the recruitment of their staff, we have taken action to support councils to recruit permanent teachers.


“Since the start of the pandemic, we have provided £240m of additional investment, over two financial years, for the recruitment of additional education staff.

“This has supported the recruitment of over 2200 additional teachers and over 500 support staff in the 2020-21 school year.

“In August, we announced that further additional permanent funding equating to £145.5m per annum will be baselined in to the local government settlement from April 2022.

“This will ensure sustained employment of additional teachers while meeting local needs and benefitting Scotland’s children and young people.

“We will continue to do everything we can to maximise the number of jobs available for teachers, including permanent posts.”

Thousands of rotting salmon ‘stink out’ village after mass death at farm

The Scottish Salmon Company farm off Gigha suffered a 'sudden and unforeseeable bloom of micro-jellyfish'.

Corin Smith via Inside Scottish Salmon Feedlots
Residents of Tayinloan said their village was 'stinking'.

Thousands of salmon have been killed in a mass mortality event at a fish farm off the west coast of Kintyre.

The Scottish Salmon Company farm off the shore of the Isle of Gigha has suffered a major loss of life after a “sudden and unforeseeable bloom of micro-jellyfish”.

Jellyfish can sting fish leading to gill and skin injuries and eventually killing them.

Residents of Tayinloan, which sits on the coast of the Kintyre peninsula in Argyll and Bute opposite Gigha, said their village was “stinking” with lorries “spilling rotten fish fluid as they come up the hill”.

Corin via Inside Scottish Salmon Feedlots
Fish removed from the pens at the Scottish Salmon Company farm off Gigha.

The Scottish Environmental Protection Agency is investigating, while the Scottish Government said the Fish Health Inspectorate had inspected the fish farm.

A spokesperson for the Animal and Plant Health Agency said it does not comment on ongoing investigations.

The Scottish Salmon Company operates two sites in the Sound of Gigha, East Tarbet Bay and Druimyeon Bay.

The latter has received five “unsatisfactory” classifications in seabed surveys by the Scottish Environmental Protection Agency.

Corin Smith via Inside Scottish Salmon Feedlots
The pens of the Scottish Salmon Company farm off the Isle of Gigha.

Results for 2020 have yet to be evaluated.

East Tarbet Bay received “unsatisfactory” and a “borderline” reports in 2006 and 2007, but has had “satisfactory” classifications since then, apart from in the latest survey in 2019 which is still to be evaluated.

Images of dead salmon being removed from the farm nets were and then inside open-topped trailers were captured by Corin Smith, founder of Inside Scottish Salmon Feedlots.

He said: “Hundreds of thousands of dead and rotting fish, many more suffering a long lingering death, and tonnes of rotting fish dispersed into the sea.

Corin Smith via Inside Scottish Salmon Feedlots
The pens of the Scottish Salmon Company farm off the Isle of Gigha.

“As usual the Scottish Government seems to be the last to know and powerless to do anything about this company’s appalling environmental and welfare record.”

The Scottish Salmon Company said the fish were disposed of in accordance with regulations.

A Scottish Government spokesperson said: “The Scottish Government takes fish welfare and health very seriously.


“We recently refreshed the focus of our 10-year Farmed Fish Health Framework to concentrate on areas that make a direct difference to farmed fish health and welfare including analysis of causes of mortality and the development of treatments, which will help us to better understand and prepare for these environmental events. “

Corin Smith via Inside Scottish Salmon Feedlots
Dead fish from the Scottish Salmon Company farm off Gigha fill two trailers.

A spokesperson for The Scottish Salmon Company said the health and welfare of fish was fundamental to responsible salmon farming.

“However, as with any farmer, operating in the natural environment brings unique biological challenges such as the sudden and unforeseeable bloom of micro-jellyfish which occurred recently at our Gigha site,” she said.

“Unfortunately, this has caused fish mortalities which we are disposing of in line with regulations and reporting as standard practice in the industry.”

Drug ‘could help people with diabetes recover after heart attack’

Researchers have found a drug that increases levels of a protein to help cells adapt and survive after being starved of oxygen.

katleho Seisa via IStock
The study is published in the journal Diabetes.

Researchers have identified a drug that could help improve heart function in people with diabetes who have heart attacks.

Currently in clinical trials as a potential treatment for a form of anaemia, the medication could help diabetic hearts to recover and reduce their risk of developing heart failure, research suggests.

Blood supply to the heart is reduced or cut off during a heart attack, starving the heart of oxygen (hypoxia).

In diabetes, heart cells are less able to tolerate hypoxia and therefore die more quickly.


Researchers from the University of Oxford have found that a drug, known as molidustat, can increase levels of a protein that helps cells to adapt and survive after being starved of oxygen.

They hope that giving molidustat to people with diabetes will help their hearts to recover after a heart attack and reduce their risk of further complications, such as heart failure.

Dr Lisa Heather, the British Heart Foundation (BHF) intermediate research fellow at the University of Oxford, said: “Even with optimal management, people with type 2 diabetes still have a higher risk of developing heart and circulatory diseases.

“They’re then more likely than people without diabetes to develop heart failure after a heart attack.


“Despite this, there are no treatments available to help the diabetic heart recover after a heart attack.

“We’re hopeful that we’ve identified a drug that can address this unmet need and improve outcomes for people with diabetes after a heart attack.”

Molidustat, which is taken orally, is currently in phase III clinical trials for treating anaemia in chronic kidney disease.

The drug works by increasing levels of a protein called hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF).

When oxygen levels fall, HIF levels increase, causing it to activate its target genes which help cells to adapt and survive.

Previous research has found that people with diabetes have lower levels of HIF in their heart cells.

Researchers found that when they exposed human heart cells with insulin resistance, a characteristic of type 2 diabetes, to low levels of oxygen, the increase in HIF protein levels was much lower than in control cells without insulin resistance.


However when insulin-resistant cells were treated with molidustat, the researchers saw increased levels of the HIF protein and activation of its target genes.

Next researchers looked at the impact of molidustat on heart function by exposing hearts from rats with and without type 2 diabetes to low levels of oxygen.

According to the study, the function of the diabetic hearts was significantly decreased after the period of low oxygen.

But when these hearts were treated with molidustat their function recovered back to the level of those without diabetes.

HIF is also involved in healing processes that happen after a heart attack, such as the growth of new blood vessels, a process known as angiogenesis.

Angiogenesis is known to be reduced in diabetic hearts, and this is believed to be a critical step in the development of heart failure.

In the study, when rats with type 2 diabetes were treated with molidustat the researchers saw increased levels of the signals involved in the growth of new blood vessels.

They hope the treatment could help to improve blood supply to the heart after a heart attack in people with diabetes.

Professor Metin Avkiran, associate medical director at the BHF, who funded the research, said: “These promising results suggest that drugs which stabilise HIF could become a new treatment to reduce the risk of heart failure after a heart attack in people with diabetes.

“Further research is now needed to translate these early stage findings into clinical benefit.”

The study is published in the journal Diabetes.

Work under way on new railway station near Inverness Airport

The two-platform station is being built at Dalcross on the Aberdeen to Inverness line.

Network Rail Scotland via Website
Travel: Construction work is under way on a new railway station near Inverness Airport.

Construction work is under way on a new railway station near Inverness Airport.

The two-platform station is being built at Dalcross on the Aberdeen to Inverness line.

The £14m facility will feature step-free access via a footbridge with lifts.

There will also be 64 car parking spaces with ten electric charging points, four disabled spots and cycle parking.


Work from now until the end of the year will see the creation of embankments, as well as the start of construction work on the new platforms, including the concrete lift shafts and footbridge foundations.

Network Rail expects the construction of the station to be completed in December 2022.

Transport minister Graeme Dey said: “It is great to see work getting under way on what will be an exciting development both for Inverness Airport and for the surrounding communities.

“The start of work on-site is a significant step towards delivery of this sustainable travel interchange, which has been made possible by a £14m Scottish Government investment as part of our commitment to a fairer, greener Scotland.


“By making Inverness Airport more accessible for passengers and staff alike, we can deliver improved travel links to the growing Inverness Airport Business Park and the new town of Tornagrain.

“This is particularly important as we continue to pursue a green recovery from the Covid-19 pandemic.”

Lidl planning to demolish store to build new shop double in size

The supermarket chain has applied for planning permission to knock down its Moss Road store in Govan, Glasgow.

Cristian Storto Fotografia via IStock
Lidl: The supermarket chain has applied for planning permission to knock down its Moss Road store in Govan, Glasgow.

Supermarket giant Lidl is planning to demolish an existing Glasgow store to make way for a replacement shop nearly double in size. 

The chain has applied for planning permission to knock down its Moss Road store in Govan, which is 1334 square metres inside. If plans get the go-ahead its new retail base would measure 2301 square metres internally. 

Proposals for the new building include 120 parking spaces, including seven disabled, eight parent and child, two electric vehicle spots and a trolley bay. 

Trees will be removed during the development with a drainage area installed in place of them.


Grass, shrubs and new trees are to be planted on the site boundaries, according to a design statement lodged with Glasgow City Council. 

Lidl said in the design statement: “The proposal will provide a significantly better quality than the existing building, which will be more attractive and thereby making better contributions to the surroundings and character of the area.”

The replacement store will remain roughly in the same position, but the orientation would be altered slightly. It will extend further southwards and westwards due to the larger floorspace. 

The design statement added: “The amount of development proposed is considered to strike the right balance between making the most efficient use of the land whilst providing a high-quality discount foodstore.”


The entrance for cars is to remain off Moss Road. 

No decision has been made yet on the Lidl plan. 

Neither objecting nor supporting the application, a resident pointed out how Lidl had been a good neighbour but raised concerns about noise from deliveries and other concerns. 

His comment to the council said: “The plan reduces green areas to a bare minimum and it seems all trees are to be removed. This will make the view from neighbouring flats almost completely grey. Is it really necessary to remove the trees on the southwest boundary?”

He added: “Nuisance noise from vehicles unloading in the evening has been reported to the company before.”

He called for a “sound-insulated covered and gated loading bay” or no deliveries after 8pm. 

Lidl said the proposal would meet its operational and legislative needs, which includes erecting a deposit return scheme bottle store. 


By local democracy reporter Sarah Hilley

More on:

ATM withdrawals ‘decline sharply due to impact of Covid pandemic’

Visits to ATMs 'have declined to fewer than twice a month on average across the UK'.

Edafoto via IStock
Customers now take out around an extra £10 during each visit, Link said, at just under £80 typically.

People are withdrawing nearly £100m less each day from ATMs compared with in 2019, according to cash machine network Link.

Before the coronavirus pandemic hit, adults across the UK visited ATMs three times a month on average.

But visits have since declined to fewer than twice a month on average.

Customers now take out around an extra £10 during each visit, Link said, at just under £80 typically.


Link pointed to Financial Conduct Authority (FCA) figures in 2020 showing that more than five million people greatly rely on cash every day.

The total value of Link ATM withdrawals is currently running at around £1.6bn a week, compared with around £2.2bn in 2019.

The network said this year, it has heard from over 400 communities wanting better cash access.

It has installed over 70 ATMs across the country in response to those requests and a further 30 in areas identified as lacking cash access.


Link said it is encouraging people to speak up if they find it difficult to access cash free of charge.

Nick Quin, head of financial inclusion, Link, said: “People are choosing new ways to pay for things, and Covid has turbocharged the switch to digital.

“When we conducted similar analysis this time last year, we had an incomplete picture because before the vaccine rollout people generally were staying local, working from home and many leisure locations were still temporarily closed.

“ATM use in some city centres had declined by as much as 80% overnight (in Westminster, Glasgow and Edinburgh in March 2020).

“Now that life is returning to normal, people are still visiting ATMs much less often and taking out more each time.

“Crucially, even though we’re withdrawing almost £100m less per day, millions still rely on cash, especially in the most deprived areas of the country. It is important we continue to protect access to cash across the country.”

The UK Government has pledged to legislate protect the future of cash.


Here are the top 10 constituency areas with the smallest percentage declines in the volume of cash withdrawals, comparing August 2019 with August 2021, according to Link:

=1. Liverpool Walton, 20%

=1. Bradford South, 20%

=1. Birmingham, Hodge Hill, 20%

4. Leicester East, 21%

5. Bradford East, 22%

=6. Boston and Skegness, 23%

=6. Birmingham, Perry Barr, 23%

8. Warley, 24%

=9. Cynon Valley, 25%

=9. Rochdale, 25%

And here are the top 10 constituency areas with the biggest percentage declines in the volume of cash withdrawals, comparing August 2019 with August 2021, according to Link:

1. Edinburgh East, 63%

=2. Cities of London and Westminster, 60%

=2. Edinburgh North and Leith, 60%

4. Holborn and St Pancras, 58%

=5. Edinburgh South, 56%

=5. Glasgow Central, 56%

=5. Edinburgh West, 56%

8. Crawley, 55%

9. Belfast South, 54%

10. Bristol West, 53%

And, over the same period, here are the percentage changes in the volume of withdrawals, the increase in the average amount of cash withdrawn per withdrawal and the change in the total typical amount withdrawn each day, according to Link:

– East Midlands, minus 38%, £10, minus £6.5m.

– East of England, minus 39%, £10, minus £8.3m.

– London, minus 40%, £14, minus £13.4m.

– North East, minus 35%, £8, minus £3.9m.

– North West, minus 35%, £9, minus £10.6m.

– Northern Ireland, minus 38%, £14, minus £3.1m.

– Scotland, minus 43%, £9, minus £11.4 million

– South East, minus 41%, £10, minus £12.2m.

– South West, minus 43%, £8, minus £8.2m.

– Wales, minus 37%, £8, minus £4.4m.

– West Midlands, minus 35%, £10, minus £7.5m.

– Yorkshire and the Humber, minus 36%, £9, minus £8.3m

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