Anas Sarwar is to call for a new legal duty of cooperation between the UK and Scottish Governments.
The Scottish Labour leader said it would ensure that the governments would work together, rather than against each other.
It comes as plans for a second Scottish independence referendum ramp up, with a date of October 19 next year being set for a vote.
First Minister Nicola Sturgeon announced that legislation will be introduced at the Scottish Parliament in order to allow a referendum to take place.
The Lord Advocate Dorothy Bain QC has written to the Supreme Court asking it to establish whether Holyrood has the necessary legal powers to stage a vote without the need for a transfer of powers from Westminster.
Sturgeon has argued that she will not allow Scottish democracy to be “a prisoner” of Boris Johnson, or of any prime minister.
However, the UK Government has insisted that it is “not the time” to be talking about another referendum on Scottish independence.
In a bid to ease tensions between the governments, Sarwar will make a speech on Monday setting out plans to improve working.
And he will criticise the SNP and Conservatives for seeking to “maximise disagreements”.
“The truth the Tories and the SNP don’t want to talk about is constitutional politics can never end poverty or inequality,” said Sarwar.
“It doesn’t put food on the table, build any schools, or train any nurses. It cannot, alone, build a better nation.
“But when both of Scotland’s governments stand to gain politically from the chaos of division, it means bad government thrives and people pay the price.
“I will call for a new legal duty of cooperation between the UK and Scottish Governments, and structures to ensure they work together where they can and not against each other.
“We are proposing new models of inter-government working designed to heal the bad relationship that exist.”