Labour leader Iain Gray accused the Scottish Government of ordering cuts in the health service which he said would lead to the loss of more than 1,200 jobs.
Mr Gray hit out at First Minister Alex Salmond after the SNP leader accused Labour of "ducking" the chance to form an "anti-Tory Government" at Westminster.
The exchanges at First Minister`s Questions at Holyrood on Thursday took place less than 48 hours after the new coalition Government between the Tories and the Liberal Democrats was formed.
While Mr Salmond warned of "Tory cuts to come" under new Prime Minister David Cameron, Mr Gray accused the SNP Scottish Government of making cuts to health services.
The Labour leader said union officials had met bosses at Greater Glasgow health board on Thursday morning and added: "They were presented with this plan, a plan to cut over 1,200 jobs out of Glasgow’s NHS this year. Over half are nurses and midwifes."
He added that Health Secretary Nicola Sturgeon "isn’t letting these cuts happen, she is demanding them of the health board".
After the SNP won six seats in last week’s General Election - short of the party’s target of 20 - Mr Gray said: "If voters had known what this lot were up to, they wouldn’t have given them six seats, never mind 20."
Mr Salmond told the Labour leader that NHS spending in Scotland this year was up by £264million and added that was "despite the reduction of £500million in the Scottish Government budget".
The First Minister also hit out at Labour over the result of last week’s election. During that campaign, Labour politicians told voters to back them in a bid to keep the Tories out of office.
Mr Salmond said: "When the Labour Party went to the people and said vote Labour and we’ll stop the Tories, they forgot to mention that they were going to lose 100 seats south of the border and a Tory Government would come, regardless of how Scotland voted."
Mr Gray, however, said that the SNP "fell pretty far short" of its election target as he quipped: "Just like a baker’s dozen is 13 instead of 12, a Salmond score is six instead of 20."
He added that the day after the election, there were a number of reports of NHS cuts.
The Labour leader said: "I suspect the First Minister probably couldn’t bring himself to read the Scottish press the day after the election.
"If he had, he would have read that 700 jobs are to go in Lothian NHS, mental health provision in Ayrshire and Arran is being slashed and a new kidney unit cancelled, and 500 cleaning hours are being cut at Glasgow Royal Infirmary."
Mr Gray said the First Minister had previously promised to protect the NHS and asked: "Was he covering up these cuts or does he just not know what’s going on? Is the First Minister shameless or just clueless?"
Mr Salmond insisted NHS spending was higher in real terms this year before he turned on Labour over the election result.
The SNP leader said: "As I remember the General Election, the Labour Party’s claim was if people in Scotland voted Labour they would be protected from a Conservative Government.
"People in Scotland did vote Labour, Labour won 41 seats, and we now have a Conservative Government at Westminster.
"If we get the extraordinary position of Labour having failed to win the election despite gathering the support of the Scottish people, and then ducking the opportunity to form an anti-Tory Government, how on earth could Iain Gray or any other MSP come to this chamber and start complaining about the Tory cuts to come?"